Article 4(1) UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) deals with temporary special (affirmative action) measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women. With a view to support the CEDAW Committee in the process of drafting a General Recommendation to Article 4(1) and in consultation with the Committee members, an expert seminar on this topic was organised in Maastricht, the Netherlands, in October 2002. The meeting brought together highly qualified experts on the subject of affirmative action from a variety of legal cultures, academic backgrounds and non-governmental organisations. The aim of the meeting was threefold: to provide input for the CEDAW Committee; stimulate the legal debate on the issue of temporary special measures; and contribute towards the promotion of positive action measures in the Netherlands. This volume contains the revised papers and comments that were presented at the meeting.